CHOCOLATE WEBSITE GLOSSARY OF TERMS


COMPOUND COATING
A compound can be defined as a confectionery product with a vegetable fat replacement for cocoa butter, usually hydrogenated palm kernel oil. For example, in a chocolate-flavored compound, cocoa is used in place of chocolate liquor and the cocoa butter is replaced with a vegetable fat. Compounds offer a variety of colors and flavors and also offer a greater variety of functionality. (Cargill.com)

COUVERTURE CHOCOLATE
Chocolate made with extra cocoa butter to give a high gloss, used for covering sweets and cakes. (dictionary.com)

TEMPERING
Tempering is a conditioning process that involves the controlled cooling and heating of melted chocolate to promote the formation of small stable cocoa butter crystals. Correctly tempered chocolate with small, stable crystals will produce finished products with excellent gloss, snap, texture and bloom resistance. (Cargill.com)

GANACHE
A smooth mixture of chocolate and cream, used in cakes, truffles, and chocolates. (dictionary.com)

INCLUSIONS
Any substance added to chocolate beyond the widely accepted ingredients (cacao, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder, vanilla, and lecithin). Ex.: crushed peppermint, blueberries.

FAT BLOOM
Fat bloom results from inadequate tempering or temperature abuse of well-tempered chocolate, producing a visible, dull-white film surface to severe whitening of the surface, with soft or crumbling textures on the interior. While fat bloom has a negative effect on appearance, the product remains perfectly safe to eat. (Cargill.com)

SUGAR BLOOM
Sugar bloom is a hard white surface film resulting from exposure to moisture. It is formed by the dissolution and subsequent crystallization of sugar on the chocolate’s surface. While sugar bloom has a negative effect on appearance, the product remains perfectly safe to eat. (Cargill.com)

VISCOSITY
Viscosity is a measurement of a fluid’s resistance. Viscosity is important to know when purchasing chocolate because it directly affects its utility in certain confectionery applications. In general, lower viscosity chocolate is ideal for dipping and enrobing applications, in which a thin layer of chocolate coating is desired. Higher viscosity chocolate is ideal for molding applications, in which it is important for the chocolate to maintain its shape.

BAKING CHOCOLATE
Pure unsweetened chocolate used in baking and icings and sauces and candy. (thefreedictionary.com)

CACAO
The dried partly fermented fatty seeds of a South American evergreen tree (Theobroma cacao of the family Sterculiaceae) that are used in making cocoa, chocolate, and cocoa butter — called also cacao bean, cocoa bean. (merriam-webster.com)

BITTERSWEET CHOCOLATE
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, there is no technical difference between bittersweet and semi-sweet chocolate because both chocolates must contain at least 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids. After these requirements are met, it is up to the individual manufacturer to adjust the amount and type of chocolate liquor and the amount of sugar, cocoa butter and milk solids. Also, flavorings such as vanilla can be added. Traditionally, bittersweet chocolate contains 50% or more chocolate liquor. However, both semisweet and bittersweet chocolate are still referred to as "dark chocolate.” (Cargill.com)

DARK CHOCOLATE
Chocolate that is dark in color and contains a high percentage cocoa and cocoa butter, usually no milk, and varying amounts of sugar. (merriam-webster.com)

MILK CHOCOLATE
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Standard of Identity, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 10% chocolate liquor, 12% milk solids and 3.39% milk fat. The standard for all chocolates specify that only nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners can be used and that optional flavors cannot imitate the flavor of chocolate, milk and butter. (Cargill.com)

WHITE CHOCOLATE
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, white chocolate is the combination of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin and optional flavor. White chocolate is basically milk chocolate without any chocolate liquor. The standard for white chocolate is a minimum of 20% cocoa butter 3.5% milkfat and 14% milk solids with a maximum of 55% sucrose. Wilbur Chocolate offers Wilbur® Platinum® white chocolate. (Cargill.com)

SEMI-SWEET CHOCOLATE
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, there is no technical difference between bittersweet and semi-sweet chocolate because both chocolates must contain at least 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids. After these requirements are met, it is up to the individual manufacturer to adjust the amount and type of chocolate liquor and the amount of sugar, cocoa butter and milk solids. Also, flavorings such as vanilla can be added. Traditionally, bittersweet chocolate contains 50% or more chocolate liquor. However, both semisweet and bittersweet chocolate are still referred to as "dark chocolate.” (Cargill.com)

CHOCOLATE LIQUOR
A paste of ground cocoa nibs that is created as part of the process of manufacturing chocolate. (merriam-webster.com)

COCOA
A powder made from roasted, husked, and ground seeds of the cacao, Theobroma cacao, from which much of the fat has been removed. (dictionary.com)

CACAO BUTTER
A pale vegetable fat with a low melting point obtained from cacao beans. (merriam-webster.com)

DUTCH-PROCESSED COCOA
Cocoa powder treated with a mild alkalizing agent such as baking soda. (thefreedictionary.com)